Embedded Processor

Microcontroller or uC, SoC. ASIC Design and EDA Tools. FPGA and DSP. SBC to Industrial Computers. Part of delabs Technologies

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Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Medical Clinic - Better Prescription with ViewSonic

 "Their solution provider developed software that gives doctors the capability to write electronic prescriptions that can then be faxed, printed or e-mailed to patients or directly to pharmacies...."

Medical Clinic - Better Prescription with ViewSonic

ViewSonic V212
Some features
  • Access PC files and applications from anywhere within your wireless network
  • Doctors and other healthcare personnel can make their rounds and access patient records at the patient's bedside
  • Manufacturing and warehouse workers can carry the V212 around the warehouse to check and update inventory levels in real time
Wireless Tablet Client - ViewSonic V212
    Remotely access files, applications and data from any location within the wireless infrastructure with integrated 802.11b/g capability.

    Tuesday, December 14, 2010

    Healthcare PC Technology - Tangent

    They have specialized computer solutions for Medical and Industrial Applications. The Vertex VDI has a entire network in an appliance, it can power up to 120 Virtual Machines.

    Healthcare PC Technology - Tangent

    Products include mini and ruggedized form factors, all-in-one PCs, touch screen, mobile security, email archival and network security appliances.

    19 inch Medix E19 - Tangent

    Antimicrobial PC with IP65 front panel, Intel Core i, VOIP phone, TV-tuner

    19 inch Medix E19 - Tangent

    Medix E19 can be programmed for various visual notification applications in patient rooms or nurses stations. The enclosure on Medix E19 has been factory treated with an antimicrobial additive to battle surface contamination, making this 19” infotainment unit ideal for healthcare.

    Tangent Inc.
    191 Airport Boulevard Burlingame, CA 94010, USA.

    Updated 2013

    Specialty Medical Display Testing from Sencore

    Specialty Medical Display Testing from Sencore

    Video and Audio Technologies.

    Medical Video & Imaging Tech School - Calibrate all your medical workstation displays.

    DC14 accuGray Calibration Software - Hands-on medical display monitor calibration course.

    From - Sencore

    Sunday, December 12, 2010

    Scientific Graphing and Data Analysis - WaveMetrics

    IGOR Pro is an interactive software environment for experimentation with scientific and engineering data and for the production of publication-quality graphs and page layouts ....Scientific Graphing and Data Analysis - WaveMetrics

    Scientific Graphing and Data Analysis - WaveMetrics

    Technical graphing and data analysis for Macintosh and Windows.

    IGOR Pro includes a wide range of capabilities for scientific and engineering analysis and graphing.

    IGOR NIDAQ Tools MX - The NIDAQ Tools MX package adds support for data acquisition directly into IGOR Pro.

    IGOR Filter Design Laboratory - IFDL is a package of IGOR extensions and macros that allow you to design FIR (Finite Impulse Response) and IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and to apply them to your data.

    COMSOL - Multiphysics Modeling Software

    Developer of technical computing software. Software for simulation of real world multiphysics systems.

    COMSOL Multiphysics is an engineering, design, and finite element analysis software environment for the modeling and simulation of any physics-based system.

    COMSOL - Multiphysics Modeling Software

    Modules for Structural Mechanics, Chemical Engineering, Plasma MEMS, Earth Science, Acoustics, and more.

    COMSOL - Multiphysics Modeling Software

    Electrical Modules - AC/DC Module, Batteries & Fuel-Cells Module, Hi and Low Frequency Electromagnetics, Heat Transfer, RF Module.

    COMSOL Desktop is a powerful integrated environment designed for cross-disciplinary product development with a unified workflow, regardless of the application area.

    The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, structural, acoustics, fluid, heat, and chemical disciplines.

    Powerful Packaging for Electronics in Extreme Environments - ".. a team at APEI decided to develop a new power module — a package meant to contain power components, cool electronics devices, and connect them to other circuits — with improved thermal management capabilities and performance"

    COMSOL, Inc.
    100 District Avenue, Burlington, MA 01803, USA.

    Thursday, November 11, 2010

    Technologic Systems - Embedded Systems

    They develop and Manufacture a wide variety of off-the-shelf PC/104 SBCs (embedded single board computers) and peripherals that satisfy most embedded project requirements. These are based on x86 and ARM processors.

    Technologic Systems - Embedded Systems

    Technologic Systems - Embedded Systems

    Compatible with a wide range of operating systems including Linux which is default with complete driver support for the hardware. The flash memory media included in the development kit boots to a operating system and comes with C/C++ development tools installed. TS-Linux mini distribution provides Apache web server, FTP and telnet client/server. This kit does not include the TS-ARM SBC.

    SBC ARM Kit from Technologic Systems

    All Technologic Systems ARM Single Board Computers are pre-configured with your selected Operating System when delivered from the factory.  Therefore, using our computers is just a matter of putting together the basic cabling and equipment required to start up the board.  A Development Kit provides the required equipment to boot and run our Single Board Computers.

    Technologic Systems, Inc.
    16525 East Laser Drive, Fountain Hills, AZ 85268, USA.

    Wednesday, November 10, 2010

    Infineon Technologies - Microcontrollers

    Semiconductors for analog, mixed signal, RF, power and embedded circuits and systems. Automotive, industrial electronics, security and communications; Semiconductor and system solutions. History - Spin off of semiconductor operations of parent company, Siemens AG.

    Infineon Technologies - Microcontrollers
    • 32-Bit Microcontrollers - TC11xx Family (Industrial and Multi Market)
    • 16-Bit Microcontrollers - XE166 Family (Industrial)
    • 8-Bit Microcontrollers - XC800 I-Family (Industrial & Multimarket)
    DAP miniWiggler

    DAP miniWiggler

    High-performance and cost-efficient debugging tool. The miniWiggler is Infineons high-performance and cost-efficient debugging tool for the future. On host side, it has an USB interface, which is available on every computer.

    DAVE - Digital Application virtual Engineer

    Helps you program the Infineon microcontroller you want to use in your project, by offering intelligent wizards, that help you configure the chip to work the way you need it and automatically generate C-code with appropriate driver functions for all of the on-chip peripherals and interrupt controls.

    Thursday, November 04, 2010

    Maple Systems - Operator Interface Technology

    Line of products that range from alphanumeric and ASCII terminals to fully-loaded Windows CE and XP touchscreen industrial computers. Maple Systems has a reliable and affordable operator interface solutions for automation and computerized machines.

    Maple Systems - Operator Interface Technology

    These are configurable control panels. It can reduce the clutter on the panels in the control room.

    COMPACT Graphic HMI - Maple Systems

    Widescreen HMIs have 4.3 inch touchscreen displays with a resolution of 480 x 272 pixels and a 16:9 aspect ratio. You can configure your new HMI5043N or HMI5043T in either landscape or portrait mode.
    400 MHz CPU, 128 MB of Flash, Serial Port, Client USB Port. The HMI5043T Has An Ethernet Port. Fully Functional HMI With Multiple-Screens, Pop-Ups, Alarms, Recipes etc.

    COMPACT Graphic HMI - Maple Systems

    Tuesday, November 02, 2010

    Plessey Semiconductors - CMOS IC Solutions

    British electronics company which design and develop Semiconductor Chip Solutions like RF components, data converters, power regulators, imaging sensors, programmable DSPs and special ASICS.

    Plessey Semiconductors - CMOS IC Solutions
    Highlights of Services
    • In-house development team
    • RF, Mixed Signal and High Performance Analogue
    • Full custom / Semi-custom IC design service
    • Process design Kits (PDK) Development and Support
    • Characterization, Modelling and ESD
    EPIC Sensor technology

    EPIC Sensor technology
    A innovative sensor technology that measures changes in an electric field in a similar way to a magnetometer detecting changes in a magnetic field. The EPIC sensor, which requires no physical or resistive contact to make measurements.....

    Plessey Semiconductors Ltd
    Plymouth Tamerton Road, Roborough, Plymouth, Devon, United Kingdom PL6 7BQ.

    Monday, October 11, 2010

    MikroElektronika - Embedded Development Systems

    Produces a wide range of development tools and compilers for various microcontroller families.

    UNI-DS3 Development System - mikroElektronika

    MikroElektronika - Embedded Development Systems

    The UNI-DS3 development system supports PIC, AVR, 8051, ARM, PSoC and dsPIC microcontrollers with a large number of peripherals.

    • Graphic LCD 128x64 can be easily connected via the on-board connector that is also connected to MCU pins.
    • 12-bit output DAC MCP4921 with serial interface is used for applications in measuring and regulating devices.
    • Serial 12-bit voltage A/D converter for applications in measuring and regulating devices.
    • USB 2.0 programmer can be connected to a PC via the on-board USB programmer connector.
    • ENC28J60 is a 28-pin, 10BASE-T stand-alone Ethernet Controller with SPI interface

    UNI-DS3 Development System - mikroElektronika

    ARM Card for UNI-DS3 - MCU card for NXP ARM microcontrollers. The card features an on-board USB 2.0 programmer. It comes with an LPC2148.

    ARM Card for UNI-DS3

    Fastwel - Industrial SBC and Modules

    Develops and Manufactures rugged Single Board Computers and CPU modules for Industrial and Demanding requirements.

    PICMG single board computer - Fastwel

    Fastwel - Industrial SBC and Modules

    On the right is a CPC800 a compact single board computer in EPIC form-factor.

    • Intel Pentium M processor up to 1.8 GHz
    • Up to 1 GB DDR SDRAM ECC soldered onboard
    • Two Gigabit Ethernet ports
    • Four USB 2.0 ports
    • Two SerialATA channels

    EPIC Intel Pentium M SBC

    AVR and ARM based Industrial Systems - ConTeK

    Embedded Systems using ARM and AVR processors. In Industrial Process and Machine automation.

    AVR and ARM based Industrial Systems - ConTeK

    Engineering Services offered include technical support like design, calculations and realization. Development of electronics, control and software visualization systems to OEM's like Manufacturers of industrial machines or their parts.

    AVR and ARM based Industrial Systems - ConTeK

    CTB03 - Procesor unit with AVR 16MHz

    CTB03 is small and cheap single board control system suitable for machine control where processing of small amount of signals is needed and where size of application program is less than 128 kB.
    Some Specs
    • Wide range of power supply voltage 15-27 VDC
    • ATMEL AVR processor
    • 2KB nonvolatile FRAM for data storage
    • Battery-backed realtime clock
    • 16 digital inputs 24 V
    • 16 digital outputs with transistor switches
    • RS232 and CAN bus
    • 4 analog inputs and 4 analog outputs.
    • 2 inputs for direct connecting of load cell
    • 2 inputs with selectable range 0-5 V or 0-10 V
    ConTeK Ltd.
    V Zavetri 6/1478, 170 00 Prague 7, Czech Republic

    AVR Circuits by Vassilis Serasidis – AVRsite

    Circuits based on AVR microcontrollers (?C) from Atmel. "little powerful things"

    AVR Circuits by Vassilis Serasidis - AVRsite

    Generic experimental AVR board v2.0

    A simple and small AVR board to develop your applications. It consists of few, cheap and ordinary components like LEDs, Voltage regulator and capacitors by Vassilis Stergiopoulos on AVR Assembly.

    Generic experimental AVR board v2.0

    Sunday, October 10, 2010

    AVR Libc – Atmel AVR C library

    AVR Libc is a Free Software project whose goal is to provide a high quality C library for use with GCC on Atmel AVR microcontrollers.

    AVR Libc - Atmel AVR C library

    Together, avr-binutils, avr-gcc, and avr-libc form the heart of the Free Software toolchain for the Atmel AVR microcontrollers. For a complete prepackaged Windows version of the toolchain, please see the WinAVR project.

    Tuesday, October 05, 2010

    BPM Microsystems - Semiconductor Programming

    Supplier of engineering, production device programmers and is the leading supplier of automated programming systems to the semiconductor and electronics industries.

    BPM Microsystems - Semiconductor Programming
    This desktop automated system, the Helix-TU comes standard with two precision-designed tube input and output handling systems. Using Enhanced 7th Generation programming sites with FX4™ socket module capability, you can now program up to four devices simultaneously per site. The Helix-TU system is designed to handle a wide range of packages, making it one of the most flexible tube input solutions on the market.

    Helix-TU - BPM Microsystems

    Programs microcontrollers, flash memories, E/EPROMs, flash EPROMs, PLDs, CPLDs, FPGAs, antifuse FPGAs, and more

    Features Include
    • Programs up to 800 devices per hour
    • Site technology is interchangeable for dedicated flash or universal programming hardware
    • Existing support for hundreds of device packages and thousands of socket modules
    • Four times the throughput with FX4 socket modules
    • Low voltage support down to 1.5V (Vdd)
    • Reliable precision tube handling system for small packages
    Helix-TU: Desktop Automated Production Programmer with Tube Input

    BPM Microsystems
    5373 West Sam Houston Pkwy N, Suite 250 Houston, Texas 77041 USA

    Monday, September 06, 2010

    Nano-RK - Wireless Sensor Networking RTOS

    Nano-RK is a fully preemptive reservation-based real-time operating system (RTOS) from Carnegie Mellon University with multi-hop networking support for use in wireless sensor networks. Nano-RK currently runs on the FireFly Sensor Networking Platform as well as the MicaZ motes. It includes a light-weight embedded resource kernel (RK) with rich functionality and timing support using less than 2KB of RAM and 18KB of ROM.

    Nano-RK - Wireless Sensor Networking RTOS

    Features Include
    • C GNU tool-chain
    • Real-Time Priority Based Scheduling
    • Built-in Fault Handling
    • Energy Efficient Scheduling
    • Small Footprint <2K RAM, 16K ROM,
    • SLIPstream a simple gateway to IP
    • Eclipse IDE allows for easy development 

    CMUcam5 Pixy

    The CMUcam extends upon this idea by providing a flexible and easy to use open source development environment that complements a low cost hardware platform. The CMUcam3 is an ARM7TDMI based fully programmable embedded computer vision sensor. The main processor is the NXP LPC2106 connected to an Omnivision CMOS camera sensor module.

    The goal of the CMUcam project is to provide simple vision capabilities to small embedded systems in the form of an intelligent sensor. The CMUcam open source programmable embedded color vision sensors are low-cost, low-power sensors for mobile robots. You can use the CMUcam vision systems to do many different kinds of on-board, real-time vision processing tasks

    2014 - Pixy is a fast, low-cost vision sensor you can quickly “teach” to find objects, and it connects directly to Arduino and other controllers.

    TinyOS for Wireless Embedded Sensor Networks

    TinyOS is an open-source operating system designed for wireless embedded sensor networks. It features a component-based architecture which enables rapid innovation and implementation while minimizing code size as required by the severe memory constraints inherent in sensor networks.

     TinyOS's component library includes network protocols, distributed services, sensor drivers, and data acquisition tools. An open-source OS for the networked sensor regime.

    TinyOS for Wireless Embedded Sensor Networks

    TinyOS has been ported to over a dozen platforms and numerous sensor boards. A wide community uses it in simulation to develop and test various algorithms and protocols. - Official TinyOS Website
      This is a nice OS for a Distributed Industrial Automation Implementation. Data Logging Systems. It is an open-source operating system designed for wireless embedded sensor networks on a BSD license.

      eXtreme Scale Mote

      Design of a Wireless Sensor Network Platform for Detecting Rare, Random, and Ephemeral Events

      eXtreme Scale Mote

      The XSM platform integrates an Atmel ATmega128L microcontroller, a Chipcon CC1000 radio operating at 433MHz, a 4Mbit serial flash memory, infrared, magnetic, acoustic, photo and temperature sensors, weatherproof packaging, a bootloader, and a “Golden Image” program that incorporates system management, network programming, and low-power listening.....

      Total Phase - Tools for Embedded Systems

      Products and Solutions in Embedded Computing and Interface like USB, I2C, SPI and CAN. Leading provider of embedded systems development tools for engineers all over the world. SPI Development Kit - Total Phase

      Total Phase - Tools for Embedded Systems

      Types of Products and Solutions Include Protocol Analyzers - Capture, display, search, and filter I2C, SPI, or USB in real time. Host Adapters, CAN Interfaces and various tools over the entire life cycle of any embedded system.

      SPI Development Kit - Total Phase

      • Exercise target devices on an SPI bus as a master device.
      • Simulate an SPI master or slave device.
      • Program and verify SPI-based Flash devices.
      • Passively monitor an SPI bus in real-time with bit-level timing down to 20 ns.

      Total Phase: Tips and Tools for USB, I2C, and SPI

      Sunday, September 05, 2010

      CADint Sweden – EDA and CAE design tools

      EDA/CAE/CAD software - CADint PCB, ELECTRA Autorouter with Schematic Entry and 3D Board View as well.

      CADint Sweden - EDA and CAE design tools

      CADint Sweden - EDA and CAE design tools

      Schematic capture - Draw hierarchical schematic diagrams with an unlimited number of pages

      PCB Design - Powerful layout features include net guidelines, manual trace routing with optional mitering or bezier curves, pin and group swap, automatic via generation, trace length and impedance calculators…

      Amazing 3D PCB visualization - The CADint 3D Viewer allows you to view your board from any angle at nearly any magnification. Vertical clearance constraints for components can easily be visualized, as can any aspect of the PCB itself.

      CADint Freeware you get all the power of CADint PCB for small projects. Layouts are limited to 100 pads and schematic diagrams are limited to 350 nodes.

      Friday, September 03, 2010

      Visionics - EDWinXP and DocOne EDA Tools

      They Created the first EDA package, the CAD ABC, way back in 1983, when there were no other PC-based EDA systems. Later products include CAD 1000, CompCAD and the EE Designer series, some milestones.

      Visionics - EDWinXP and DocOne EDA Tools

      EDWinXP comprise of Schematic Editor, Simulators-Mixed Mode Simulator and EDSpice simulator, PCB Layout Editor-Create the PCB Layout,Fabrication Manager-generate manufacturing output files for Photoplotter, NC Drill etc.

      Visionics - EDWinXP and DocOne EDA Tools

      Thermal Analyzer - check for hotspots on the board, Electromagnetic Analyzer (with Signal Integrity and Field analyzer) - check for electromagnetic effects.

      Schematic Editor is the front end for any PCB design application. Schematic Editor of EDWinXP allows to capture the circuit in the form of a schematic diagram. The created circuit is in the form of a logical diagram where components are placed using the Library Browser and Library Explorer.

      Layout Editor is used to design the PCB layout of a circuit. The design can be captured either in schematic capture or directly in layout editor. In the former case, the design is front annotated to the layout editor and in the latter case it is back annotated to schematic editor.

      Visionics Sweden HB
      Ga Norrtaljev 97, 182 47 Enebyberg. Sweden.

      Network Friendly Embedded Systems - Coridium

      "Our products are designed to configure themselves on most networks. The development environment is something you already use every day: Your web browser and text editor."

      Network Friendly Embedded Systems - Coridium

      From Hyper Embedded - Microcontroller ASIC and EDA

      ARMmite PRO - Low-cost SBC - Coridium

      Features Include

      • Arduino PRO footprint compatible
      • Compatible with 5V shields
      • Development software Basic and C
      • ARM7 CPU running at 60 Mhz
      • 24 TTL compatible digital I/O
      • 7 10-bit A/D converters, 100 KHz sample rate
      • 8 Hardware PWM channels
      • Internal supplies of 5V, 3.3V and 1.8V

      Thursday, August 05, 2010

      YAVRTOS - Yet Another Atmel AVR OS

      Chris O'Byrne created YAVRTOS for understanding how RTOS can be built and how they Tick.

      YAVRTOS - Yet Another Atmel AVR OS

      What is a real-time operating system?

      Processors are only actually only able to do one thing at a time, whereas we need them to do more than one thing at a time (e.g. update the display while checking for keypresses while reading the serial port). A real-time operating system (RTOS) provides facilities for achieving that.

      What is a task?

      A task does one of the things (e.g. update the display, check for keypresses, read the serial port) that the application needs done. The real-time operating system allows tasks to execute concurrently, while providing facilities for e.g. tasks to communicate with each other.

      What is a tick?

      The RTOS needs to be able to switch between tasks - they way it does this is by using a regular processor interrupt (e.g. one of the timer interrupts). Every such interrupt is called a "tick". These interrupts must be set up before the RTOS is started.

      My Notes -

      There are two things to learn from Chris, build something to completely learn a concept. This is a tough but thorough way of learning. The easier way is to learn from examples. Hacking and Reverse Engineering also good for students to digest methods exhaustively.

      The way chris follows leads to things like innovation/improvement and inventions. That is A Better way. This phrase is probably attributed to hp, now called Agilent Technologies. The computing/printing division carries the hp brand name.

      I had once serviced a DMM by hp(agilent) decades ago. It had something like a custom 8039. This was decades back. It was a 5-1/2 or more. It had a Watchdog built with CMOS 40xx chips. I never understood watchdogs then, they were not even called watchdogs.

      The "Tick" is the heartbeat of a RTOS, not only it keeps polling all peripheral chips or I/O, It cannot skip a beat, even high priority interrupts cannot stop the routine tasks or even delay them. If it has to sample a Analog level ten times a second and produce a output control byte at the same speed; It could be RTOS for Process Control. For a rocket this will not be RTOS. Speed and not missing a step. Many times faster than the process it is meant for, probably ?

      scmRTOS - Preemptive Multitasking OS

      Single-Chip Microcontroller Real-Time Operating System. OSS, tiny preemptive Real-Time Operating System intended for use with Single-Chip Microcontrollers.

      scmRTOS - Preemptive Multitasking OS

      For - MSP430 (Texas Instruments); AVR (Atmel); Blackfin (Analog Devices); ARM7; FR (Fujitsu); Cortex-M3.

      Some Features are

      • Low Resource Requirements
      • Preemptive multitasking
      • Interprocess communication

      WinAVR - OSS for Atmel AVR RISC

      WinAVR (pronounced "whenever") is a suite of executable, open source software development tools for the Atmel AVR series of RISC microprocessors hosted on the Windows platform. It includes the GNU GCC compiler for C and C++.

      WinAVR - OSS for Atmel AVR RISC

      WinAVR contains all the tools for developing on the AVR. This includes avr-gcc (compiler), avrdude (programmer), avr-gdb (debugger), and more!

      You can try WinAVR out with Portable WinAVR, a version that doesn't require an install.

      AVRFreaks.net - Discussion, Links, Tools, Datasheets.

      Wednesday, August 04, 2010

      TNKernel - Fast RT Kernel for Embedded Systems

      TNKernel performs a preemptive priority-based scheduling and a round-robin scheduling for the tasks with identical priority. The current version of TNKernel includes semaphores, mutexes, data queues, event flags and fixed-sized memory pools. The system functions calls in the interrupts are supported.

      TNKernel - Fast RT Kernel for Embedded Systems

      Ports -Microchip PIC24/dsPIC; Freescale HCS08; ARM Cortex-M3; Freescale ColdFire.

      Things of Interest - TN NET TCP/IP stack; USB bulk firmware.

      Tuesday, August 03, 2010

      ASIX Electronics Corporation - Fabless Semiconductors

      ASIC and SoC for networking, communication and connectivity applications. ASIX was founded in May 1995 in Hsinchu Science Park.

      ASIX Electronics Corporation - Fabless Semiconductors
      • Embedded Networking Solution: Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet
      • Bus Connecting Solution: USB 1.1, USB 2.0
      • Integrated SoC Solution
      The AX11025, Single Chip Microcontroller with TCP/IP and 10/100M Fast Ethernet MAC/PHY, is a System-on-Chip (SoC) solution which offers a high performance embedded micro controller and rich communication peripherals for wide varieties of application which need access to the LAN or Internet.

      AX11025, Single Chip Microcontroller

      AX11025 provides very cost effective networking solution to enable simple, easy and low cost Internet connection capability for many applications such as consumer electronics, networked home appliances, industrial equipments, security systems, remote data collection equipments, remote control, remote monitoring and remote management.

      ASIX Electronics Corporation
      4F, No.8, Hsin Ann Rd., Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu,Taiwan 300

      IAR Systems - Embedded Systems Tools

      Software tools for embedded systems, Like C/C++ compilers and debuggers, State machine tools, RTOS, TCP/IP and USB stacks; for 8, 16, and 32-bit microcontrollers. Helps in developing professional products in the areas of industrial automation, medical devices and automotive products.

      IAR Systems - Embedded Systems Tools

      IAR Systems provides completely integrated kits for development of embedded applications based on ARM, 8051, ColdFire, R8C/M16C/M32C and AVR32.

      EFM32 Gecko Development Kit

      EFM32 Gecko Development Kit 

      Contains EFM32-G8xx, EnergyMicro evaluation board and IAR Embedded Workbench for ARM 32K limited edition.

      IAR Systems AB
      Strandbodgatan 1 Uppsala Sweden

      Monday, August 02, 2010

      Contiki - Open Source Multi-Tasking OS

      Contiki is an open source, highly portable, multi-tasking operating system for memory-efficient networked embedded systems and wireless sensor networks. Contiki has been used is a variety of projects, such as road tunnel fire monitoring, intrusion detection, water monitoring in the Baltic Sea, and in surveillance networks.

      Contiki - Open Source Multi-Tasking OS

      Contiki is designed for microcontrollers with small amounts of memory. A typical Contiki configuration is 2 kilobytes of RAM and 40 kilobytes of ROM.

      Contiki provides both full IP networking and low-power radio communication mechanisms. For communication within wireless sensor network, Contiki uses the Rime low-power radio networking stack.

      The M-12 module from Redwire is a fast and easy way to create a 6LoWPAN, Zigbee, or general 2.4GHz 802.15.4 device without additional RF design or certifications and without the need for an external host microcontroller.  This is a Hardware for Contiki.

      Instant Contiki
      is a complete development environment in a single-file download: a virtual machine with all Contiki software development tools installed. All that is needed to start using and developing Contiki software is the free VMWare Player software, 4 Gb free hard drive space, and the Instant Contiki development environment.

      Updated Oct 2013

      Contiki is an open source operating system for the Internet of Things. Contiki connects tiny, low-cost, battery-operated and low-power systems to the Internet.

      The Internet of Things is a collection of technologies that connect things—sensors and actuators—to the Internet, allowing the physical world to be accessed through software.

      Tuesday, July 06, 2010

      Advin Systems - Device Programmers

      Located in The Silicon Valley, Manufactures Products like Chip Programmers, Gang Programmers, Gang Modules , In-Circuit Programmers and UV EPROM Erasers.

      Advin Systems - Device Programmers

      They also provide the Software to Program an EPROM, and Other IC Chips, This is easy to use with lots of useful functions and information without the looks of complexity.

      Universal Production/Gang Programmer - Advin Systems

      SuperPro-5004GP Universal Production/Gang Programmer

      Programs 60,000+ devices. Operates in concurrent mode: A device starts being programmed right after it has been inserted into the first programming site, while operator loads a device into the next proramming site.

      Programmer S/W for SuperPro Series of Programmers

      EPROM programmer software

      Advin Systems Inc.
      556 E Weddell Dr, Unit 8 Sunnyvale, CA 94089 USA

      Pololu - Electronic Modules for Robotics

      Small electronics modules and simple mechanical components for for robot and motion control. Web Store provides parts like small gearboxes, breadboards, servos, and robot kits too.

      Pololu - Electronic Modules for Robotics

      The Orangutan SVP robot controller is a complete control solution for small and medium-sized robots running at 6 - 13.5 V. The module is designed around the powerful Atmel ATmega324PA AVR microcontroller (32 KB flash, 2 KB RAM, and 1 KB EEPROM) or ATmega1284P (128 KB flash, 16 KB RAM, and 4 KB EEPROM) running at 20 MHz .

      Orangutan SVP Robot Controller

      Orangutan SVP-1284 Robot Controller

      The Orangutan SVP is also available as an SVP-324 partial kit or SVP-1284 partial kit that has all of the surface-mount parts pre-soldered and a variety of through-hole parts included separately.Mechanical Components include Motors, Gearboxes, RC Servos, Wheels, Tracks, Ball Casters etc.

      Sunday, July 04, 2010

      BeRTOS - Real Time Operating System

      A RTOS which is also a OSS. Drivers and Libraries designed for the rapid development of embedded software.

      BeRTOS - Real Time Operating System

      BeRTOS was born as a extremely modular, highly optimized and fine-tuned operating system for embedded programming. As a result, each module has its own scope and can be used alone or in cooperation with other modules. It's even possible to use most of the drivers without activating the kernel module.

      New architectures are supported at every new release. Here are a few
      • Arduino Duemilanove ATmega328P
      • ARM7TDMI Atmel AT91SAM7 series, NXP LPC2XXX series
      • ARM Cortex-M3 Luminary Stellaris (LM3S),ST Microelectronics STM32
      Example projects using BeRTOS

      This section includes real world examples of BeRTOS usage. These examples are full featured programs that you can download, compile and flash directly on your board.

      DevelGPS - Stellaris

      DevelGPS - Stellaris

      The purpose of this project is to implement a portable GPS locator / geocaching finder with the Cortex-M3 based Luminary Micro LM3S1968 evaluation board. The device proposes a user interface to configure the GPS coordinates of a target location and shows on the OLED display the direction and distance to reach the target.

      Femto OS - RTOS for Atmel AVR ATmega

      The Femto OS is a very concise portable real time - preemptive operating system (RTOS) for embedded microcontrollers with minimal ram and flash, say 2KB .. 16KB flash and 128 .. 1024 bytes ram. The main target is the Atmel AVR architecture, such as the ATtiny or smaller ATmega series.

      Femto OS - RTOS for Atmel AVR ATmega

      Femto OS - RTOS for Atmel AVR ATmega

      Femto OS is specially made for small embedded devices. For example, the 'Smallest application' is the application called 'Bare' compiled for the ATmega8. It solely runs a 16 bit led counter on the idle task hook. It consumes 258 bytes of flash and 10 bytes of ram.

      - Ruud Vlaming

      Read More -

      Friday, July 02, 2010

      mbed - Rapid uC Prototyping

      The mbed Microcontroller is made for prototyping, and comes in a 40-pin 0.1" pitch DIP form-factor so it's ideal for experimenting on breadboard, stripboard and PCBs. It is a uC ScratchPad for trying out new ideas.

      mbed - Rapid uC Prototyping

      From Hyper Embedded - Microcontroller ASIC and EDA

      The mbed Compiler lets you write programs in C++, and then compile and download them to run on the mbed Microcontroller. The mbed Compiler is a Web-App in the Cloud, you don't have to install or setup anything to ignite your first mbed project idea. Any OS, Any Where, your software is online and ready to use. You will need a computer or netbook with a Browser.

      Two XBees and One USB Explorer

      "I had two XBee modules that I really wanted to use with the mbed. These are the standard OEM RF Modules one with an antenna and one with a ANT chip. For one of the chips I will be using the Xbee Explorer USB from Sparkfun...."

      Thursday, June 10, 2010

      Cool Verification - Hardware verification EDA

      Cool Verification - Hardware verification EDA

      "Thoughts on hardware verification, the EDA industry, and related topics from the perspective of JL Gray, a verification consultant at Verilab."

      JL Gray - Twitter

      GateRocket - Verification and Debug - FPGA

      Verification and debugging solutions for today's most advanced FPGAs.

      GateRocket - Verification and Debug - FPGA

      "GateRocket offers the industry's first Device Native verification solution that enable companies to verify and debug their FPGA designs faster and with higher quality."

      RocketDrive GateRocket - Verification and Debug - FPGA

      "RocketDrive plugs into a standard disk drive slot in your PC and is available in several configurations, each containing the largest FPGA in its respective device family from Xilinx or Altera."

      RocketBlog - RocketTweet

      Tuesday, June 08, 2010

      AutoTRAX EDA and Design Express

      Powerful integrated Electronic Design Suites for Electronic Engineers. It includes Schematic Capture Software, Spice Simulation and PCB Design Software.

      AutoTRAX EDA and Design Express

      "They have all the features you expect and need to rapidly and easily take your design from conception through to production. Its in-built hierarchical project manager lets you perform both top-down and bottom-up design and reuse design components and sub-systems."

      From Hyper Embedded - Microcontroller ASIC and EDA

      "Once you have created your schematic capture design you can rapidly simulate its analog performance using the built-in virtual instruments such as oscilloscopes and signal generators."

      Friday, May 21, 2010

      Compact USB Development Kit

      The Low Pin Count USB Development Kit provides an easy, low-cost way to evaluate the functionality of Microchip PIC16F1459 (or other PIC16F145x) 14 and 20 pin USB microcontrollers.

      The platform provides all of the necessary hardware, software, and code examples necessary to quickly bring your next USB design from concept to production.

      Low Pin Count USB Development Kit

      This is what i would use if i have to make a Quick USB Voltmeter or Ammeter.

      Complete Embedded USB PIC Solution

      If you want to do such a project, use Opto-Isolation for High-Energy circuits for Safety. The Analog Value from Attenuator, Shunt, Current Transformer is amplified and converted to frequency then thru opto-coupler reaches uC. This protects PC and User.Be very careful in High Voltage and High Current. Use proper transducers and Isolation to Protect man and machine.

      PIC18F13K50/14K50 USB Flash nanoWatt uC

      PIC Microcontroller with full speed USB 2.0 interface. Ideal device for battery-powered applications.

      "The addition of mTouch(TM) touch sensing compatibility, a 10-bit ADC, motor control PWMs, and a host of serial interfaces make the PIC18F14K50 the perfect device to "Just add USB" to any application."

      Thursday, May 20, 2010

      OpenServo - Digital servo for Robotics

      OpenServo is an open community-based project started by Mike Thompson. Low-cost digital servo for robotics being the goal. New code and hardware.

      OpenServo - Digital servo for Robotics

      OpenServo - Digital servo for Robotics

      Independent H-Bridge allowing for braking, Temperature sensor, 400khz I2C/TWI interface. - New Features

      Some features:
      • High precision positioning
      • Advanced curve based motion profile engine
      • Open source design and software
      • Back EMF speed sensing
      • High speed 20MHZ design  
      OpenServo is a replacement for a standard servo's control electronics, giving you more control over the servo's functions.

      MicroTec from Siborg Canada

      Development and production of different kinds of scientific software. Has developed software products like SibLin: a 3D solver for Poisson/Diffusion/Heat Transfer. They also develop custom designed software tools.

      MicroTec from Siborg Canada
      They also Supply Digital Multimeter Smart Tweezers - Component evaluation on a high density PCB.

      MicroTec from Siborg Canada
      Affordable, Easy-to-use and Robust 2D Semiconductor Process and Device Simulator for PCs.

      SibLin: A Linear Solver for Matrices with a Band Structure

      SibLin is a linear solver for matrices arising in 2D and 3D finite difference solutions of various partial differential equations such as the Poisson equation, the Heat Transfer equation, the Diffusion-Drift equation etc.

      MicroTec from Siborg Canada

      Siborg Systems Inc
      24 Combermere Cres, Waterloo, ON N2L 5B1 Canada

      Saturday, May 08, 2010

      DAP Technologies - Mobile Computers

      "DAP designs and manufactures mobile computers for a range of demanding industries including Utilities, Field Service, Emergency Services, Public Safety, Transportation and Logistics."

      DAP Technologies - Mobile Computers

      "The Kinysis 8900KS computer features a full QWERTY keyboard for fast data entry, with a half-SVGA touch screen display. The Kinysis 8900VS computer features an anti-glare, WVGA display with touch-screen, usable with a stylus, or even a gloved finger."

      Kinysis 8900VS Tablet Computer - DAP Technologies

      Some Features -
      • Modular technology provides easy customization
      • Fully rugged, sealed to IP67 and withstands wide temperature variations
      • Versatile anti-glare, wide temperature WVGA display with scratch- and shock-resistant touch-screen
      Kinysis 8900VS Tablet Computer - DAP Technologies

      Thursday, April 08, 2010

      MakingThings - Prototyping Interactive Projects

      MakingThings - Prototyping Interactive Projects

      MakingThings provides software and electronics tools for people who create projects that interact with the physical world. A broad range of people use MakingThings products including artists, designers, students, musicians, hobbyists and engineers.

      Make Controller Kit

      Using the Make Controller, you can:

      • Control motors (stepper, servo, and DC)
      • Switch lights
      • Monitor Temperature
      • Measure Distance
      • Detect People
      • Sense light
      • Control things from your PC

      The Make Controller Kit is an open source project - open firmware, schematics, and accompanying software tools. All products can be purchased directly from our online store, and can be shipped worldwide.

      The Controller Board is built around the AT91SAM7X256, and adds the essential components (like the crystal, voltage regulator, filter capacitors, etc.) required to run it, while bringing almost all the processor's signal lines out to standard 0.1" spaced sockets.

      Wednesday, April 07, 2010

      fuzzyTECH - Fuzzy Logic and NeuroFuzzy

      Professor Lotfi Zadeh, the inventor of fuzzy logic, contends that a computer cannot solve problems as well as human experts unless it is able to think in the characteristic manner of a human being.

      fuzzyTECH - Fuzzy Logic and NeuroFuzzy

      The fuzzyPLC is programmed by an enhanced version of the standard fuzzy logic system development software fuzzyTECH from Inform Software. fuzzyTECH is an all-graphical, design, simulation, and optimization environment with implementation modules for most microcontrollers and industrial computers.

      fuzzyTECH - Fuzzy Logic and NeuroFuzzy

      Fuzzy Logic Applications in Industrial Automation - by Dr. Jörg Gebhardt and Constantin von Altrock

      In recent years, fuzzy logic has proven well its broad potential in industrial automation applications. In this application area, engineers primarily rely on proven concepts. For discrete event control, they mostly use ladder logic, a programming language resembling electrical wiring schemes and running on so called programmable logic controllers (PLC). For continuous control, either bang-bang type or PID type controllers are mostly employed.

      McCAD - Schematic capture to PCB

      McCAD modules take the designer through the complete design cycle: Schematic capture, Simulation (analog & digital), Printed Circuit Board layout, Autorouting and Gerber generation for board fabrication.McCAD 3-SPICE

      McCAD - Schematic capture to PCB

      • Schematic Capture
      • Analog/Digital Simulation
      • Printed Circuit Design
      • Autorouting
      • Gerber Translation & other utilities

      McCAD 3-SPICE based on the latest version (3F5) of Berkeley's SPICE 3 and permits interactive mixed mode circuit simulation.

      Monday, April 05, 2010

      Corelis JTAG boundary-scan testing

      Corelis offers a complete product line of JTAG (boundary-scan) circuit board testing tools for interconnect testing and JTAG in-system programming.

      Corelis JTAG boundary-scan testing

      Corelis also offers training classes on JTAG boundary-scan with hands-on lab exercises. Trainings covers all aspects of boundary-scan testing using Corelis ScanExpress tools. Design for testability (DFT), JTAG embedded functional test (JET), in-system programming (ISP) and test procedure generation are also covered.

      The Blackhawk XDS560 Trace System

      IEEE-1149.1 boundary-scan testing, In-System-Programming (ISP) of Flash memories and CPLDs and JTAG embedded testing.

      The Blackhawk XDS560 Trace System combines a USB560m, LAN560, or PCI560 JTAG Emulator with a non-intrusive, hardware-based trace tool for debugging and profiling high-performance, DSP-based applications providing developers with advanced visibility to debug specialized problems that occur in high-performance, real-time embedded applications.

      Friday, March 12, 2010

      SynaptiCAD - Dynamic Design Simulation

      SynaptiCAD was founded by electrical engineers to create design tools that helped engineers think critically about their designs. With SynaptiCAD's tools you are able to begin analyzing and simulating design ideas right away without having to complete an entire circuit model or schematic.

      SynaptiCAD - Dynamic Design Simulation

      SynaptiCAD has released version 15 of its family of Timing Diagram Editors and test bench generators. The major enhancement in the new version is the ability to create blocks of editable analog waveforms using simple Python-based equations.

      Timing Diagram - SynaptiCAD

      Timing Diagram Editors offer Editable Analog Equations

      The tool also includes a number of built-in equations to create common analog patterns such as ramps, sine waves, and capacitive charge/discharge curves. The resulting waveforms can then be exported to many simulation environments including Verilog, VHDL, and SPICE simulators.

      SynaptiCAD Sales, Inc.
      PO Box 10608, Blacksburg, VA 24062-0608, USA

      ACS - RF and Microwave EDA Tools

      ACS delivers high performance state-of-the-art RF and microwave circuit design and simulation software for the Electronic Design Automation (EDA) marketplace.

      ACS - RF and Microwave EDA Tools

      "A wide range of applications are supported, from analog sub-circuit design to RF circuit design for complex wireless communications systems. ACS offers circuit design, synthesis, simulation and optimization programs for the advanced engineering professional and first time CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) user alike."

      LINC2's Smith Chart view of the prototype amplifier simulation results.

      ACS - RF and Microwave EDA Tools

      The program LINC2 (LINear Circuit Analysis version 2), is a circuit simulation program written for the Microsoft Windows (TM) graphical operating environment. The program uses a nodal circuit file description that is very similar to several of the most popular RF/Microwave simulator programs currently used in the industry today.

      Applied Computational Sciences -  ACS
      Computer Aided Engineering Solutions for RF & microwave circuit design
      061 Dragt Place, Escondido, CA 92029, USA.

      Thursday, March 11, 2010

      mentalSPICE Analog Simulator and EDA

      Mental Automation, developers of SuperCAD, SuperPCB, mentalSPICE, mentalMAX, and other related products. Tools to quickly and easily design, simulate and analyze electronic circuits.

      mentalSPICE Analog Simulator and EDA

      mentalSPICE Analog Simulator and EDA

      "mentalSPICE is a simple yet powerful analog simulator that enables analysis of circuits using a personal computer. The Mental Automation Spice package works directly with SuperCAD, using the Oscilloscope display window for output. For static measurements, virtual voltmeters and ammeters are also provided."

      Program Features

      • Complete Berkeley Spice compatible inputs and outputs
      • Full AC, DC, and transient analyses
      • Noise, Fourier, Transfer function, and Pole-Zero analyses
      • Built-in models for all common discrete analog devices
      • Support for external libraries
      • Temperature effects modeling

      MEMS Products from Axetris Leister

      Micro-technology products and sevices. MEMS based ultra compact mass flow meters and controllers, modules and systems. MEMS based broadband infrared (IR) sources.

      Diode-based laser gas detection (LGD) OEM modules. Micro Optics and MEMS Services.

      MEMS Products from Axetris Leister

      What is MEMS Technology?

      "Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology.....

      Axetris Infrared Sources

      Axetris Infrared Sources (IRS) offer micro-machined, electrically modulated thermal infrared emitters featuring true blackbody radiation characteristics, low power consumption, high emissivity and a long lifetime

      MEMS and Nanotechnology Exchange

      The MEMS and Nanotechnology Exchange, also known as the MEMS Exchange, a leading provider of high-quality fabrication, foundry and design services for MEMS and Nanotechnology.

      Axetris AG
      Schwarzenbergstrasse 10, 6056 Kaegiswil, Switzerland

      ipcas Industrial IT Solutions

      Hardware - RS232/Ethernet Converter - Timeserver - I/O Solutions - Embedded Hardware - RS232-Tester

      ipcas Industrial IT Solutions

      ipcas GmbH designs & manufactures software & hardware solutions for Industrial IT Systems.

      LinuxBox: Embedded PC with full-fledged Linux

      The Embedded PC LB1 is a highly compact industrial computer with a pre-installed Linux system and extensive network services ready to run without time-consuming software installations.

      ipcas GmbH, Gundstraße 15, 91056 Erlangen (Büchenbach), Germany

      ipcas Business Data

      Wednesday, March 10, 2010

      TADA Training - Embedded Workshop

      Training for Engineers: USB, RTOS, TCP/IP, ZigBee - Triangle Adv Design on Twitter

      "TADA Training is the professional workshop and training division of Triangle Advanced Design and Automation, an engineering design consulting company located in Cary, NC - right outside of the Research Triangle Park area."

      TADA Training - Embedded Workshop

      Training Classes

      • IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee
      • USB Mastering
      • Embedded TCP/IP Ethernet
      • RTOS with MQX (POSIX)
      • C for Microcontrollers
      • PCB Design with EAGLE

      Sunday, February 14, 2010

      OpenCores design and publish core designs

      "Our main objective is to design and publish core designs under a license for hardware modelled on the Lesser General Public License (LGPL) for software. We are committed to the ideal of freely available, freely usable and re-usable open source hardware. OpenCores.org"

      OpenCores design and publish core designs

      Subsidiary objectives
      • Develop standards for open source cores and platforms
      • Create tools and methods for development of open source cores and platforms
      • Develop open source cores and platforms
      • Provide documentation for these cores and platforms
      These tools and methods should allow large, widespread, even international, teams to develop hardware in an open way.

      UART to from fiber optic - OpenCores

      UART to / from fiber optic

      This core is well tested. They is two versions: -Fixed baudrate (0 to 2.5Mbit/s) - a full set of 2 transmitter and 2 receiver fit in a single XC9572XL CPLD -variable baudrate 50Mhz/n*p where n between 20 to 100 fiber optic baudrate and p>=1 baudrate divider.

      Other Projects
      • Ethernet MAC 10/100 Mbps
      • USB 1.1 Host and Function IP core
      • OpenRISC 1000
      • CAN Protocol Controller
      • I2S Interface
      • SPDIF Interface

      Friday, February 12, 2010

      QuickLogic - Flexible Semiconductor Platforms

      Products for the hand-held mobile device market. Platforms include ArcticLink for Customer Specific Standard Product (CSSP) solution in the display and connectivity subsystems of Smartphones, Smartbooks, Netbooks, Mobile Internet Devices. PolarPro for the interconnect and system logic requirements of power sensitive and portable applications.

      QuickLogic - Flexible Semiconductor Platforms

      Along with the hard logic blocks, the CSSP offers a programmable fabric. Based on QuickLogic’s patented ViaLink technology, this fabric provides a highly compact, low-power resource that can
      implement virtually any logic function the development team requires. The fabric is non-volatile, so once programmed it does not need any external memory-based boot source nor does it suffer any start-up delay.

      UART and SAM Connectivity for Mobile Enterprise Products

      UART & SAM Connectivity for Mobile Enterprise Products
      The TI Sitara reference design allows the connection of multiple low bandwidth wireless, sensor, and different I/O devices to a TI Sitara processor.

      Founded 1978, Corporate headquarters in Sunnyvale, California.
      Address - 1277 Orleans Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94089, United States.

      Thursday, January 14, 2010

      Bill the Electrical gizmo builder

      Bill the Electrical gizmo builder
      Interesting Educational or Learning Computer and Embedded Projects by Bill O'Donnell
      • Laser Temperature Controller using Stepper Motor
      • Auto Fill Circuit for Laser Cooling Loop Ethernet Data Logging
      • Displacement Measurement System
      • Temperature to RS232 Converter

      PMC-Sierra - Broadband - Storage

      "PMC-Sierra is a global provider of broadband communications and storage ICs for access, metro, wireless infrastructure, enterprise and customer premises equipment."

      WiMAX RF ICs, Wireless Infrastructure and Enterprise Storage Solutions.Optical Networking Products.

      PMC-Sierra - Broadband - Storage

      WP3 or WinPath3
        Third generation family of communication processors provided with carrier-class IP protocol and interworking software.Extensive set of interfaces support IP up to 10 GbE and TDM/SDH up to OC 48 unchannelized or OC 24 channelized.

        WP3 or WinPath3

        WinPath3 Third Generation Access Network Processor

        WDS3 are offered standalone and in standard ATCA form factors, so they can be used with any ATCA chassis. These boards are available with various I/O options and adapter cards to provide equivalent configurations for a range of applications.

        PMC-Sierra, Inc.
        1380 Bordeaux DriveSunnyvale, CA 94089, USA

        Monday, January 11, 2010

        Embedded Internet Development from CCS

        CCS develops tools exclusively for the Microchip PIC MCU. CCS is also a leading provider of electronic engineering services for embedded software development and hardware design.

        Embedded Development Tools - CCS

        Design. Connect. Realize with EZ Web Lynx. "The EZ Web Lynx module can easily be added to any existing electronic design to gain Ethernet capability, reducing development and engineering time."

        Embedded Internet Development Kit CCS

        The CCS Embedded Internet Development Kit is an evaluation kit for demonstrating TCP/IP and internet connectivity. This kit includes the powerful PCWH Integrated Development Environment with compiler support.

        Embedded Internet Development from CCS

        Two distinct example programs are included to demonstrate applications. The first example is a simple webserver, which allows web clients to view the potentiometer reading from anywhere in the world using a web browser. The second example is an SMTP/E-Mail client, which shows how to send E-mails.

        CCS, Inc.
        1020 Spring City Drive, Waukesha, WI 53186, USA.

        Compilers Cards and IDE from SourceBoost

        "SourceBoost IDE is a modern development environment that allows rapid development of code. The code can be compiled under one of the SourceBoost compilers, or under under a third part compilers."

        E-Blocks Product Line - SourceBoost

        Development environments from SourceBoost Technologies

        SourceBoost BoostC++ compiler

        BoostC++ is a latest generation C++ compiler that works with PIC18, PIC16 and some PIC12 processors.

        E-Blocks Product Line - E-Blocks are plug and play modules that allow quick and easy construction of electronic systems.