Microcontroller - 8051, 8052, OpCodes, Analog Interface.

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Digital Signal Processing - DSP

When you are trying to arrive at a complex Embedded Systems and Communications solution, You will think of a DSP. Now that computers and embedded devices are used in most electronic devices, DSP is a way you can process, transform, analyze and generate fast analog data, in Real Time.

Real Time ideally is instantaneous or in sync, in tandem. Not an Zepto Second lost. But in the real world many analog inputs or result outputs can be processed a lot slower. So it is more like, How 'real time' you want, how cost-effective a real-time solution can be provided. If the analog input is slow and the system inertia is high and the user response time is limited by his persistence of vision, you need to make a system just a bit faster, even Microseconds delay may be fine. In yet another case it may be pico seconds.

Digital Signal Processing - DSP

A web page in a browser delays a few milliseconds, you will not notice; but when you talk over the phone a small delay, echo or glitch can be unpleasant.

In a weather station the wind speed, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity are measured as analog signals using special sensors. This is then converted to digital data and fed to an embedded system or computer. The computer software analyzes the data and arrives at some predictions based on past patterns. This system in its simplest form, may not be DSP, but it is the beginning of this science, the first step.

Audio, Video, Image Processing, Speech Processing, Biometrics, etc. All these can use DSP to Produce an Output or generate a Result in a more repeatable and controllable manner than analog.

Real world signals or inputs are analog, Like the RGB color gradients in a Image or Video, the Harmonics in a Sound and The Noise in a Radar Signal. When these signals are processed in the conventional manner, many stages of semiconductors and Passive RLC blocks are needed and fine tuning them is delicate. Aging (magnetics-electrolytics), Vibration, Temperature, Humidity may alter the tuned parameters. Manufacturing and testing them is also tedious.

In a DSP solution we first convert the analog signals into digital streams. It could be multiple analog sources. Audio may need a slow A/D Conversion, Processing TV signals have to be faster.

An Analog to Digital convertor for an Image Processor in an Object Recognition System may be slow, but the data may has to be processed quickly and results of match or mismatch generated fast. If this system has to work with say coffee beans on a fast moving conveyor.... Check if they have been roasted well or not, even pop off beans that may affect the flavor of that batch, Then both scan and result has to be very fast.

If a Supersonic plane has to watch, prepare and react for all objects flying close by, the Real Time response of the system puts the design and technology to test. Even the software has to be lean and ultra fast, to react before it is too late.

Digital Signal Processing - MIT OpenCourseWare

Digital Signal Processing begins with a discussion of the analysis and representation of discrete-time signal systems, including discrete-time convolution, difference equations, the z-transform, and the discrete-time Fourier transform. Emphasis is placed on the similarities and distinctions between discrete-time. The course proceeds to cover digital network and nonrecursive (finite impulse response) digital filters. Digital Signal Processing concludes with digital filter design and a discussion of the fast Fourier transform algorithm for computation of the discrete Fourier transform.

Digital Signal Processing Overview

Digital Signal Processing Overview

A digital signal processing system takes a continuous sound wave as input, feeds it through an analog low-pass filter (an anti-aliassing filter) to remove all frequencies above half the sampling rate (see Nyquist's sampling theorem).

Digital Signal Processing Control Lab: DSP-59000

Dual processors (TMS-320C5416 & TMS-320LF2407); Built-in audio/video, MP3, Ethernet, Keypad, RS-232/RS-485, temperature control, function generator, PWM , experiment modules.

- delabs

Related Reading

Monday, April 09, 2012

System-on-Chip - SoC - IP

When a product has to be made small, the board real estate is limited or it has to be manufactured in large numbers.... SoC is the Answer. A Microprocessor evolved into a Microcontroller by packing many external chips into one chip. Now uC Card along with the other blocks like A-D, Port Drivers, Networking elements, Display Driver and other peripherals can be packed into one chip.

Some Power Supply and RF blocks cannot be easily added inside as they have a silicon processing more specific to their applications. Laser trimmed Instrumentation Op-Amps, high accuracy resistor arrays, high value capacitors, magnetics and supporting chips are placed outside on the PCB.

The SOC can pack Digital Chips, Memory, A/D, D/A converters, uC, RAM and Custom programmable areas. For more specialized communications, analog and power requirements; Special SoC types can tackle RF and Power management within a chip because of proprietary silicon processing expertise.

System on a chip - Wiki

"A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single chip substrate. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems."
System-on-Chip - SoC - IP

Programmable SoC offers an alternative to custom ASIC as you can make different products from the same chip, yet make products that are portable and low power. The software, pcb, user interface and support components has to be redesigned for every unique product. Many standard IPs are available for Design and Reuse.

Some of the early Philips (nxp) 8031 variations had integrated a lot of outer chips like A/D, D/A display driver etc. This made Programmable Industrial Instruments/Gadgets possible with just a few external components. Now many variations are available from chip manufacturers, with more speed, memory and peripherals inside. Futuristic gadgets may be intelligent, interactive, networked and portable. The SoC chip makes it all possible, by integrating all product functions within it except the user interface.

SoC with a Color LCD driver, Wi-Fi, USB, RAM and Flash capabilities....at last you have a Computer in a Chip. Better still Web-Chip.

Stratix IV FPGAs: Think AND, not OR

With 40 nm Stratix IV FPGAs you can reach new levels of system-on-a-chip (SoC) integration. Building on the advanced, proven Stratix III architecture, Stratix IV FPGAs deliver a high-density, feature-rich and high-performance core fabric. Combined with flexible I/Os, high-bandwidth transceivers, and memory interfaces,

Atmel AT91RM9200 is ARM920T-based

It has 16K-byte instruction and 16K-byte data cache memories, 16K bytes SRAM, 128K bytes ROM, External Bus Interface incl. SDRAM, Burst Flash and Static Memory Controllers, USB Device and Host Interfaces, Ethernet 10/100 BaseT MAC, Power Management Controller and much more...

More Reading

Thursday, April 05, 2012

NuttX RTOS - Scalable and Simple OS

Usable in all but the tightest micro-controller environments, The focus is on the tiny-to-small, deeply embedded environment. Fully scalable from tiny (8-bit)to moderate embedded (32-bit). Fully pre-emptible, fixed priority and round-robin scheduling.

NuttX RTOS - Scalable and Simple OS

Towards high degree of standards compliance. The primary governing standards are POSIX and ANSI standards. Free Service - Port NuttX to run on your custom hardware.- Gregory Nutt.

Monday, April 02, 2012

Indesign - Electronic Product Development

Indesign, LLC. Indianapolis. - Engineering Services - Electronic Product Design Engineering.

Indesign - Electronic Product Development

Activity - Engineering Design of Electronic Products and Systems. Engineering Design Center. A Company formed in 1996 by a group of Bell Labs engineers. Specializations - Electrical, Software, Mechanical, Human Factors, Testing. Areas- Consumer, Medical, Computer, Military, Industrial, Automotive, etc.

Indesign: Electrical Design

Indesign: Electrical Design

Indesign has an extensive set of tools for electrical circuit design, simulation, and testing, including programmable logic design. The combination of talented engineers and state of the art equipment, allows Indesign to deliver a design optimized for functionality and manufacturability (DFX)

Indesign, LLC.
8225 E 56th St Indianapolis, IN 46216