Microcontroller - 8051, 8052, OpCodes, Analog Interface.

Saturday, December 29, 2012

John Loomis - Course Web Pages

Dr. John S. Loomis is the Associate Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of The University of Dayton.

John Loomis - Course Web Pages

At the Course pages you can see subjects like Signal Processing, Digital Signal Processing, Analog Microelectronics Design and Electro-Optics.

Altera DE2 Board and Projects with Nios II CPU

Altera DE2 Board and Projects with Nios II CPU

"The Altera Development and Education (DE2 ) board from Terasic Technologies Inc. is a wonderful vehicle for learning about digital logic, computer organization, and FPGAs. Featuring an Altera Cyclone II FPGA, the DE2 board offers varied technology suitable for university and college laboratory use, a wide range of design projects, as well as sophisticated digital system development tools."
More Pages of Study
  • Microchip PIC32 - PIC32 Architecture and Programming
  • Web Programming with Python

Friday, December 28, 2012

Berkeley Varitronics Systems - BVS

WiMAX, 4G LTE, Wi-Fi & CDMA Wireless Test Tools. BVS designs and manufactures portable power meters such as YellowFrog 2 and Wi-Fi power analyzers such as the BVS Power Analyzer.
Yellowjacket-TABLET Wi-Fi Analyzer

Berkeley Varitronics Systems - BVS

Yellowjacket-TABLET is both a handheld tablet PC spectrum analyzer and 802.11b/a/n/g packet demodulator. The calibrated receiver measures between 2.0 - 5.9 GHz covering such popular wireless bands including Wi-Fi, Wi-MAX, ISM, Public Safety, Bluetooth and more.

Yellowjacket-TABLET Wi-Fi Analyzer

Some Features
  • RF Spectrum anlaysis in your hands or on your desktop
  • Identify WiMAX, RFID, Wi-Fi, 802.11 & other ISM interference in spectrum analysis mode
  • Channel power measurements in true dBm
  • Large, 7" WVGA touch-screen GUI

Wednesday, December 26, 2012

Starter kit for Qtouch library - QT600

The QT600 is a starter kit and development system for Atmel's AVR 8-Bit and 32-Bit RISC Flash microcontrollers.
  • USB Interface to PC
  • QT600 is powered by a USB interface
  • 3 MCU-boards (ATtiny88, ATmega324PA, ATxmega128A1)
  • 3 sensor boards for up to 64 channels

New Starter kit for Qtouch library

New Starter kit for Qtouch library

RS brings you a Design resource called DesignSpark. When i had to source some hard to find parts as a replacement or design component for a custom product, RS catalog was the answer.

The catalog would give an idea also of what parts are popular and summary specs. This was decades ago, now everything is Online, Datasheets, Manuals, Design resources, Application Notes and most important the Creative IP of many a Genius, from the world over.

The Web or Internet is the spirit of a True and Healthy Globalization, which is for Knowledge Sharing and Free Communication for Positive Growth of Skills. Most important, it enables an Intrepreneur (Internet Entrepreneur) to explore and establish his Trade Online with modest investments.

Thursday, December 06, 2012

Accelerometers in Electronics

An accelerometer is a device that measures non-gravitational accelerations. These are accelerations produced by mechanically accelerating the accelerometer via its casing. - Accelerometer Wikipedia

Accelerometers in Electronics

MMA7260Q is a 3-axis accelerometer  from Freescale Semiconductor. This accelerometer can be used with an extension Library Mma7260q which simplifies some initialization values and tilt detection.

ADXL105 Lower-Noise Wider-Bandwidth Accelerometer - The ADXL105, a near-ideal kind of vibration sensor, eliminates significant problems with existing vibration sensors, such as piezoelectric and bulk capacitive sensors. Primary benefits derive from much lower cost, stable sensitivity as a function of frequency and temperature, ruggedness, and ease of use. Besides machine health and condition monitoring, it is particularly well suited for noise and vibration cancellation applications.

A beginner's guide to accelerometers - By measuring the amount
of static acceleration due to gravity, you can find out the angle the device is tilted at with respect to the earth. By sensing the amount of dynamic acceleration, you can analyze the way the device is moving.

Society of Robots' tilt to servo control app - How does it
work? Inside an accelerator MEMS device are tiny micro-structures that bend due to momentum and gravity. When it experiences any form of acceleration, these tiny structures bend by an equivelent amount which can be electrically detected

David T.'s motor balancing experiments - Using an oscilloscope to measure AC vibration signals generated by an accelerometer (from Dimension Engineering).

Tuesday, November 27, 2012

WEBENCH Power Designer and Architect

WEBENCH Power Designer and Architect

"The WEBENCH environment provides the end-to-end design and prototyping tools you need to create power supplies or DC-DC Converters that meet your design requirements."

Power Designer - Expert Tips and Techniques for Power Supply Design. Examples - Simple Switcher, Power Supply, Voltage References, Lighting, Battery Management, Voltage Regulators, DC-DC Voltage Converters.

WEBENCH Power Architect

WEBENCH Power Architect lets engineers quickly design and simulate a complete power supply system for any number of supplies and outputs. System designers can optimize the entire power supply system for small footprint, high efficiency, and cost in minutes.
  • Quickly design and simulate your entire power supply system 
  • Easily configure the power supply load requirements for voltage and current
  • Optimize the overall footprint, efficiency, and BOM cost for the entire system 
  • Get the schematic and BOM for the complete power supply system 
  • Perform electrical simulation and thermal simulation

CircuitLab - Online Schematic Editor & Simulator

Draw and print beautiful schematics for lab reports. In-browser simulations make it easy to quickly learn electronics concepts. No need to Install, it is a Online Web Application !

CircuitLab - Online Schematic Editor & Simulator

Test and Simulate circuit ideas before breadboarding. SPICE-like models with a mixed-mode simulation engine help you apply one tool to a wide range of design tasks, from digital to analog, DC to VHF and beyond.

BJT Cascoded Active-load Differential Amplifier with CMFB

BJT Cascoded Active-load Differential Amplifier with CMFB

Build non-op-amp Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) - This kind of high-gain differential input stage might be useful as part of an op-amp, but it's a bit silly to include an op-amp within a stage another op-amp......

Some Examples
  • 555 Timer as Oscillator / PWM Generator
  • 7805 & Wall-wart Experiencing Voltage Drop-out
  • Digital 4-bit counter and DAC
  • Diode full-wave (bridge) rectifier
  • Laplace transform step response and Bode plot
  • LED with resistor biasing
  • MOSFET switching inductive load
  • Op-Amp inverting / non-inverting amplifier
  • RLC resonance
  • Zener diode voltage reference

Wednesday, November 21, 2012

AVEVA - Engineering Software Provider

Information Management solution and Integrated Engineering & Design tools.

AVEVA - Engineering Software Provider
 
"AVEVA's unique object-centred technology uses 'objects' to represent real-world elements, such as valves, pumps or pipes."

AVEVA Instrumentation - Proven, feature-rich software suite for Instrumentation and Control Engineering. Stand-alone, or fully integrated in an AVEVA Plant environment

AVEVA Instrumentation

AVEVA Plant is a set of integrated applications for plant engineering, design and design management
AVEVA Mechanical Equipment Interface is a STEP AP203-compliant, bi-directional interface enabling the rapid and robust exchange of 3D CAD models between AVEVA PDMS and leading 3D MCAD systems. Reliable 3D design exchange solution which complies with a widely-supported and effective industry standard...

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

ZA9L1 Secure ARM Microcontroller – Maxim Zatara

ZA9L1 Secure ARM Microcontroller – Maxim Zatara

The Zatara ZA9L1 is a highly integrated system-on-chip (SoC) microcontroller based on the ARM922T 32-bit/16-bit core and tailored to the specific requirements of point-of-sale (POS) terminal design and meet the strict security requirements of the Payment Card Industry (PCI) Security Standards Council 2.0 specification.

Functional Diagram
ZA9L1 Secure ARM Microcontroller - Maxim Zatara
Features Include
  • Real-Time Clock
  • Watchdog Timer (WDT)
  • Two Dedicated SPI Interfaces
  • USB 2.0 OTG Interface
  • Nine Timer/Counters
  • Three UARTs
Security Features Include
  • Embedded Boot ROM
  • 32-Bit Unique ID Number
  • NIST 800-22-Compliant Random-Number Generator
  • FIPS 180-2-Compliant SHA-1 Hash Generator
POS Security Features for PCI Compliance
  • Voltage and Temperature Sensors
  • Sensors for Tamper Switches and Wire Mesh
  • Clock Frequency and Glitch Protection
  • Battery-Backed Secure Memory with Active Zeroization

fpga4fun - Electronic Adventures with FPGA

"This site reflects my experience and my opinions on FPGA technology. It is meant to be informative and useful to anybody interested in learning FPGA technology." - Jean P. Nicolle

fpga4fun - Electronic Adventures with FPGA

fpga4fun - Electronic Adventures with FPGA
  • HDL tutorials
  • SMD technology
  • Crystals and oscillators
  • How FPGAs work
Digital oscilloscope

Build a simple Inexpensive digital oscilloscope. Single channel, about 100 MSPS. RS-232 based.
Hands-on - A digital oscilloscope

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

EEsof EDA of Agilent for RF Microwave

An Electronic Design Automation (EDA) software from Agilient. This is meant for the design and development of Communication and Wireless Products which use very High Frequency.

EEsof EDA of Agilent for RF Microwave

MMIC and Module Design Workshop - Agilent

Right from the physics-level design that is needed to create RF Components and Assemblies, these set of tools help in high-speed circuit design,, device modeling, and signal-processing.

RF & Microwave Design

"Agilent's RF and Microwave design and simulation tools provide the most complete solution for creating robust designs with first pass success and high yield in MMIC, RF-Mixed Signal IC, RF board, RF SiP and RF Module technologies."

Agilent Genesys is a low-cost and versatile integrated EDA solution for designing RF-microwave PCB and subsystems.

Wednesday, September 19, 2012

Proto-PIC - Prototyping for Hobbyists

eShop and How-To Videos for anyone who has an interest in Microcontroller Programming & Development. Components and Kits for the Electronics Enthusiast.


Proto-PIC - Prototyping for Hobbyists
 
A site designed for electronics and prototyping hobbyists and enthusiasts. This site has grown and is now a useful knowledge base and online shop for anyone who has an interest in Microcontroller Programming & Development or for anyone who has a love of electronics.

Kits and Tools
 
The Orangutan SV-328 is based on Atmel's mega328 AVR microcontroller, which runs at 20 MHz and features 32 Kbytes of flash program memory, 2 Kbytes of SRAM, and 1024 bytes of EEPROM
Eight general-purpose I/O lines with up to eight analog input channels allow for adding sensors or expanding the system.

Orangutan SV-328 Robot Controller
 
DSO Nano v2 is a Digital Storage Oscilloscope designed for basic electronic engineering tasks. Within its smart shell, the device runs on ARM Cortex™-M3 32 bit platform, provides basic waveform monitoring with extensive functions.

Features
  • Portable and lightweight
  • Waveform storage and playback
  • 6 triggering mode
  • 1Mhz Analog Bandwidth
  • Complete measurement markers and signal characteristic
  • Built-in Signal Generator
DSO Nano V2 - Pocket-Sized Digital Oscilloscope

Tuesday, September 18, 2012

Stellaris SBC Intelligent Display Kit - TI

On a Stellaris LM3S9B92 this RDK is a complete, open-tool graphical touch-screen user interface design solution for control, automation, and instrumentation applications.

Stellaris SBC Intelligent Display Kit - TI

Stellaris SBC Intelligent Display Kit - TI


Features Include
  • Bright QVGA LCD touch-screen display
  • USB 2.0 Host
  • 10/100 Ethernet MAC and PHY
  • 1 MBPS Controller Area Network (CAN)
  • I2C Interface for external peripherals and sensors
  • 32-bit ARM Cortex-M3 core

Monday, September 17, 2012

Aldec - EDA and Design Verification

Leading Electronic Design Automation company. Provides solutions for design creation, simulation and verification. These aid the engineer in the creation of FPGA, ASIC, SoC and embedded systems.

Aldec - EDA and Design Verification

DO-254/CTS provides a single and automated environment to test all FPGA level requirements with full visibility and controllability at the FPGA pin level.

Features Include
  • At-speed testing in target devices
  • For use with Altera, Lattice, Mircrosemi and Xilinx
  • Automatic test vector generation
  • Hardware testing results visualization with waveform viewer
DO-254 FPGA Level In-Target Testing

Aldec DO-254 FPGA Level In-Target Testing

The FPGA testing results are captured at-speed and displayed using a simulator waveform viewer for advanced analysis and documentation.

Aldec Inc.
2260 Corporate Circle, Henderson, NV, 89074 USA.

Thursday, September 13, 2012

LAPIS Semiconductor - LSI and Foundry

LAPIS Semiconductor a spin-off of the semiconductor business of Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. is now a member of the ROHM group.

LAPIS Semiconductor - LSI and Foundry

System and Logic LSIs, Memory Devices and optical communication devices are also part of the Product Lineup. They also have ARM-Based Microcontrollers and Support Chips for Portable Wireless Electronic Products.

Lazurite Sub-GHz - IoT

Lazurite Sub-GHz is an open platform microcomputer board with Lapis Semiconductor's 16-bit low consumption microcontroller ML620Q504.

Lazurite Sub-GHz - IoT - LAPIS Semiconductor

It includes a specific low-power (920 MHz band) technical certification acquisition module that can realize communication of hundreds of meters with low power consumption, so it is easy to realize IoT's sensor node.

Old Post of delabs
Oki Semiconductor - A full range of digital ICs from RTCs to MPUs and network devices.

"With his enterprising spirit, Kibataro Oki (1848-1906) was far ahead of his time in the late 1800s. In January 1881, convinced that the nation was about to enter the age of communications, he founded Meikosha, the origins of today's OKI."

Wednesday, September 05, 2012

Link Instruments - PC Based test and measurement

Link Instruments was founded in 1986 by 3 Columbia University graduates that saw a need for affordable Logic Analyzers and Digital Storage Oscilloscopes.

Link Instruments - PC Based test and measurement

Link Instruments sells and manufactures USB Digital Oscilloscopes and Logic Analyzers for Windows PC's and Laptops. PC Based test and measurement equipment and instrumentation: digital oscilloscope, logic analyzer and spectrum analyzer.

 IO-3200 Logic Analyzer and Pattern Generator

IO-3200 Logic Analyzer and Pattern Generator

USB based Dual Instrument, ideal for Digital Circuits or Equipment Design-Development. An Embedded Systems Lab Tool. The IO-3200s have 32 Logic Analyzer input channels and up to 32 Pattern Generator output channels.

Link Instruments Inc.
17A Daniel Road East, Fairfield, NJ 07004, USA

Monday, August 20, 2012

Bitscope - PC Oscilloscopes And Analyzers

BitScopes are USB or Ethernet connected PC Based Mixed Signal Oscilloscopes. This means they capture and display one, two or four analog signals and eight logic or timing signals, simultaneously. Any BitScope can be used as a Digital Storage Oscilloscope, Logic State Analyzer, Spectrum Analyzer or Data Recorder.

Bitscope - PC Oscilloscopes And Analyzers

USB BitScope 310

BS310U is a robust general purpose USB Mixed Signal Scope and Data Acquisition device. BS310U is backward compatible with BS300U which it replaces.

USB BitScope 310 - PC Oscilloscope

It has 4 times as much capture buffer, a software switchable x10 and x50 analog input multiplier and AC/DC coupling, switchable 50 ohm termination, a double speed built-in USB host interface all in a physical package about 2/3 the size and weight of BS300U.

BS325 with third party software

BS325 is user programmable, software extendable and can be integrated with third party software.

To make this easy the BitScope Library is available for BS325. The library can be used to create custom applications or to integrate one or more BS325 units into specialised testing and data acquisition systems.

The library is included as standard with BS325 and is compatible for Windows, Linux and Macintosh platforms.

Friday, August 17, 2012

Protect your Design or IP

If you have made an electronic product with a new circuit or code and need to protect it, then these are some Methods. If your Intellectual Property is an Idea, A Hardware Innovation or Software Application; It may need some protection other than patents. Sometimes patents are used for general applications and generic designs. Patent only an Original Idea or Innovation or an Exclusive and Unique Method.

Microcomputer Circuits in Process Control.

Protect your Design or IP

If you are small and the innovation very big, tie up with established companies with reputed brands. If you are a source for a certain product component or module, make certain restriction on patenting products made from it. Else, your Module or Application Sales may be jammed by Panic Patents.

That is the reason, the Platform that fosters innovation is Open Source.

1. Security Bit -

Use for digital logic area, an atmel uC with security bit protection or any uC-uP with internal memory read protected with security bit. the firmware should be kept in tight control from both external people and your employees and must be on a non-networked and non-internet machine.

2. Hermetically seal -

This is a crude and ancient way, delete the chip part numbers and pot it in a plastic can with ciba araldite epoxy with alumina filler, this way product may not be copied and it will be immune to vibration and corrosive environment. but heat dissipation and serviceability is affected, so make a epoxy potted module of only some part of the circuit.

3. Make ASIC or FPGA -

ASIC is only for volume production and is copy protected, if you design in-house and the chip maker you order is trustworthy, then this is ok, for small volume production use FPGA, CPLD, DSP uC or uP with read protection as practical.

Embedded Systems - More about uC based designs are here.

4. Go open source -

Design a circuit and put it on the internet to share, let the community use it and improve it, here also revenue is made by service of product, custom design and customer support and this will work long term free of tensions. This way has proved to foster greater innovation and stable technologies.

(my dairy log 2002, Amps-n-Volts June 2005, Now logged here - delabs)

Thursday, August 09, 2012

Winbond - Semiconductor Solutions

Winbond - Semiconductor Solutions
 
"Winbond Electronics Corporation America is a leading supplier of semiconductor memory solutions to the consumer, computer, and mobile electronics markets."

They are Specialized in Flash and SDRAM memory design, engineering and marketing.
  • Mobile RAM
  • Specialty DRAM
  • Graphics DRAM
  • Flash Memory
  • Memory Product Foundry Service
Winbond - Semiconductor Solutions

The W25X family operates up to 104MHz and supports "Dual-Output SPI", effectively doubling the clock rate to 208MHz. The W25Q family is "superset" compatible with W25X devices while adding Dual-I/O and Quad-I/O SPI for even higher performance

 Winbond Electronics Corporation America
2727 North First Street  San Jose, CA 95134 USA 

Tuesday, August 07, 2012

Embedded Linux Devices and Gadgets

Embedded Linux is not only Open Source, but can be adapted to any type of dedicated embedded system. It is more like a configurable firmware for Embedded Equipment. Its ability to manage multiple tasks efficiently makes it more friendly and stable, compared to any other OS.

When you look at the History of Operating Systems, you will see that that an OS that meant serious business was UNIX. It was the anvil for the creation of the C Language and AWK. Now we have Linux, the evolved Unix like OS, which is comfortable and versatile for Networking and Clustering.

Related Reading
Here is a Embedded Linux Wiki for the embedded product design community.

Gadgets and Appliances are become increasingly complex. More memory and CPU power for small devices are commonplace. Linux is one OS that can be muntzed to the smallest size. This helps developers make something like a super-firmware. Just what you need for that device, can be the OS.

Touchscreens for Home Appliances, wireless networking and web enabled consumer electronics make Linux an excellent escalation from "Firmware". For tiny systems a firmware is the OS. For complex devices today, Linux is user configured firmware.

Leopardboard DM355

Leopardboard DM355
  • High-performance Digital Media System on Chip 
  • ARM926EJ-S core 
  • Video Processing Subsystem (VPSS) 
DM355 combines high performance MPEG4 HD (720p) codecs and JPEG codecs up to 50M pixels per second, high quality, and low power consumption at a very low price point.

Friday, July 27, 2012

Qseven - Computer-On-Module Standard

"The Qseven concept is an off-the-shelf, multi vendor, Computer-On-Module that integrates all the core components of a common PC and is mounted onto an application specific carrier board. Qseven modules have a standardized form factor of 70mm x 70mm and have specified pinouts based on the high speed MXM system connector that has a standardized pinout regardless of the vendor."

Qseven - Computer-On-Module Standard

Qseven offers the newest I/O technologies on this minimum size form factor. Some are ..
  • PCIexpress
  • USB 2.0
  • Serial ATA
  • Secure Digital I/O interface
  • Gigabit Ethernet
QBlissA8 mit ARM Cortex-A8 CPU

QBlissA8

QBlissA8 is equipped with 256MB RAM and 1 GB Flash and offers interfaces like USB2.0 Host/Device, Ethernet, AC97, I2C, SPI as well as CAN, GPIO, UART and Touch (4 wire resistive). For memory extensions SDHC and SATA are at your service. The display can be connected via LVDS (up to a WXGA resolution) or HDMI.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

microEngineering Labs - Melabs

Melabs from Colorado Springs designs and markets embedded systems for Training and Prototype design. The include complete systems for PIC microcontroller development, Device programmers and Programming Adapters that support over 500 Microchip microcontrollers.

microEngineering Labs - Melabs

LAB-X Experimenter Boards are set up to work seamlessly with our compilers and programmers.
"The LAB-X1 contains the circuitry required by the PICmicro to operate: 5-volt power supply, oscillator, reset circuit, as well as additional application circuits. The crystal controlled oscillator includes jumpers to set speeds of 4MHz, 8MHz, 10MHz, 12MHz, 13.32MHz, 16MHz and 20MHz.

LAB-X1 Experimenter Board - Melabs

Application circuits include a switch matrix, potentiometers, LEDs, LCD module, serial EEPROMS, real time clock, temperature sensors, servo connectors, RS232 interface, RS485 interface, IR interface and speaker. A prototyping area is also included in case we missed your favorite circuit."

LAB-X1 Experimenter Board -Assembled from Melabs
 
microEngineering Labs, Inc.
2845 Ore Mill Road, STE 4 Colorado Springs CO 80904

Wednesday, June 20, 2012

EMA Design Automation

EMA Design Automation
 
From OrCAD and Cadence Allegro PCB design tools to custom IC design solutions, EMA has the range of products and depth of experience to meet the electronic design requirements.

Professional pre-sales consulting, system integration, post-sales support, environmental compliance assistance, and thorough design-methodology consulting.

They also offer and support Autodesk Digital Prototyping for Mechanical Designs. The Autodesk solution for Digital Prototyping brings together design data from all phases of the development process into a single digital model created in Inventor..

Other EDA Solutions like -

Aldec Active-HDL for Comprehensive FPGA design simulation and verification and BluePrint-PCB for PCB documentation process.

Component Information Portal

A web-based interface for obtaining component information and administrating the Component Information System (CIS)

EMA Design Automation 225 Tech Park Drive Rochester, NY 14623

Wednesday, June 13, 2012

SGI Silicon Graphics - Technical Computing

"SGI products and services are used by the scientific, technical and business communities to solve challenging data-intensive computing, data management and visualization problems."

SGI Silicon Graphics - Technical Computing

Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI) is a manufacturer of high-performance computing solutions, including computer hardware and software. SGI was founded by Jim Clark and Abbey Silverstone in 1982, initially as a maker of 3D graphics display terminals.

MobiRack Mobile Data Center


All-in-one solution that have extreme mobility, configuration flexibility, modularity, ruggedness. Compact, Light Weight Half-depth Server and Storage Solution.

Thursday, May 24, 2012

Android Hardware Development Kit

The Android Hardware Development Kit is designed for enterprise embedded developers looking for a single, all-inclusive solution for a variety of prototyping needs.

Android Hardware Development Kit

Android Hardware Development Kit is the first Open Hardware solution designed for full hardware customization. Together it is a Open System Design Solution.

Android Hardware Development Kit
Runs with a 720MHz ARM-based, open source BeagleBoard C4

Some Features are
  • Display: 4.3 inch touch display
  • Screen: 480×272 OLED screen
  • RAM: 128MB
  • 32bit Single Core
  • SD Storage: 4GB SD Storage
  • On Board Flash: 256MB
  • 4 USB Host Port Adapter
  • Wi-Fi 802.11b/g
  • Ethernet (RJ-45) USB 2.0 10/100 Ethernet Adapter
  • Video Output: DVI to HDMI
  • Video Output: S-Video
  • Speaker (Stereo Headphone Out): 3.5mm Audio Out

Friday, May 18, 2012

Raspberry Pi - ARM with Linux Nano Computer

Raspberry Pi is a Miniature Computer that can Interface with a Display Device like TV and a keyboard.

Raspberry Pi - ARM with Linux Nano Computer

Learning Programming with DIY Computing

We now also have a tiny ARM SoC mini computer called Raspberry PI which helps you know how a computer works. Browse the Internet on your TV or learn coding in many programming languages.

(These ARM based devices power many of the small portable electronics we see today.)

Model A has been redesigned to have 256Mb RAM, one USB port and no Ethernet (network connection). Model B has 256Mb RAM, 2 USB port and an Ethernet port.

The SoC is a Broadcom BCM2835. This contains an ARM1176JZFS, with floating point, running at 700Mhz, and a Videocore 4 GPU. Overall real world performance is something like a 300MHz Pentium 2, only with much, much swankier graphics.

There is composite and HDMI out on the board, so you can hook it up to an old analogue TV, to a digital TV or to a DVI monitor. No VGA support.

Raspberry Pi for Open Education Week at Oxford University

Raspberry Pi for Open Education Week at Oxford University

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Digital Signal Processing - DSP

When you are trying to arrive at a complex Embedded Systems and Communications solution, You will think of a DSP. Now that computers and embedded devices are used in most electronic devices, DSP is a way you can process, transform, analyze and generate fast analog data, in Real Time.

Real Time ideally is instantaneous or in sync, in tandem. Not an Zepto Second lost. But in the real world many analog inputs or result outputs can be processed a lot slower. So it is more like, How 'real time' you want, how cost-effective a real-time solution can be provided. If the analog input is slow and the system inertia is high and the user response time is limited by his persistence of vision, you need to make a system just a bit faster, even Microseconds delay may be fine. In yet another case it may be pico seconds.

Digital Signal Processing - DSP

A web page in a browser delays a few milliseconds, you will not notice; but when you talk over the phone a small delay, echo or glitch can be unpleasant.

In a weather station the wind speed, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity are measured as analog signals using special sensors. This is then converted to digital data and fed to an embedded system or computer. The computer software analyzes the data and arrives at some predictions based on past patterns. This system in its simplest form, may not be DSP, but it is the beginning of this science, the first step.

Audio, Video, Image Processing, Speech Processing, Biometrics, etc. All these can use DSP to Produce an Output or generate a Result in a more repeatable and controllable manner than analog.

Real world signals or inputs are analog, Like the RGB color gradients in a Image or Video, the Harmonics in a Sound and The Noise in a Radar Signal. When these signals are processed in the conventional manner, many stages of semiconductors and Passive RLC blocks are needed and fine tuning them is delicate. Aging (magnetics-electrolytics), Vibration, Temperature, Humidity may alter the tuned parameters. Manufacturing and testing them is also tedious.

In a DSP solution we first convert the analog signals into digital streams. It could be multiple analog sources. Audio may need a slow A/D Conversion, Processing TV signals have to be faster.

An Analog to Digital convertor for an Image Processor in an Object Recognition System may be slow, but the data may has to be processed quickly and results of match or mismatch generated fast. If this system has to work with say coffee beans on a fast moving conveyor.... Check if they have been roasted well or not, even pop off beans that may affect the flavor of that batch, Then both scan and result has to be very fast.

If a Supersonic plane has to watch, prepare and react for all objects flying close by, the Real Time response of the system puts the design and technology to test. Even the software has to be lean and ultra fast, to react before it is too late.

Digital Signal Processing - MIT OpenCourseWare

Digital Signal Processing begins with a discussion of the analysis and representation of discrete-time signal systems, including discrete-time convolution, difference equations, the z-transform, and the discrete-time Fourier transform. Emphasis is placed on the similarities and distinctions between discrete-time. The course proceeds to cover digital network and nonrecursive (finite impulse response) digital filters. Digital Signal Processing concludes with digital filter design and a discussion of the fast Fourier transform algorithm for computation of the discrete Fourier transform.

Digital Signal Processing Overview

Digital Signal Processing Overview

A digital signal processing system takes a continuous sound wave as input, feeds it through an analog low-pass filter (an anti-aliassing filter) to remove all frequencies above half the sampling rate (see Nyquist's sampling theorem).

Digital Signal Processing Control Lab: DSP-59000

Dual processors (TMS-320C5416 & TMS-320LF2407); Built-in audio/video, MP3, Ethernet, Keypad, RS-232/RS-485, temperature control, function generator, PWM , experiment modules.

- delabs

Related Reading

Monday, April 09, 2012

System-on-Chip - SoC - IP

When a product has to be made small, the board real estate is limited or it has to be manufactured in large numbers.... SoC is the Answer. A Microprocessor evolved into a Microcontroller by packing many external chips into one chip. Now uC Card along with the other blocks like A-D, Port Drivers, Networking elements, Display Driver and other peripherals can be packed into one chip.

Some Power Supply and RF blocks cannot be easily added inside as they have a silicon processing more specific to their applications. Laser trimmed Instrumentation Op-Amps, high accuracy resistor arrays, high value capacitors, magnetics and supporting chips are placed outside on the PCB.

The SOC can pack Digital Chips, Memory, A/D, D/A converters, uC, RAM and Custom programmable areas. For more specialized communications, analog and power requirements; Special SoC types can tackle RF and Power management within a chip because of proprietary silicon processing expertise.

System on a chip - Wiki

"A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single chip substrate. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems."
System-on-Chip - SoC - IP

Programmable SoC offers an alternative to custom ASIC as you can make different products from the same chip, yet make products that are portable and low power. The software, pcb, user interface and support components has to be redesigned for every unique product. Many standard IPs are available for Design and Reuse.

Some of the early Philips (nxp) 8031 variations had integrated a lot of outer chips like A/D, D/A display driver etc. This made Programmable Industrial Instruments/Gadgets possible with just a few external components. Now many variations are available from chip manufacturers, with more speed, memory and peripherals inside. Futuristic gadgets may be intelligent, interactive, networked and portable. The SoC chip makes it all possible, by integrating all product functions within it except the user interface.

SoC with a Color LCD driver, Wi-Fi, USB, RAM and Flash capabilities....at last you have a Computer in a Chip. Better still Web-Chip.

Stratix IV FPGAs: Think AND, not OR

With 40 nm Stratix IV FPGAs you can reach new levels of system-on-a-chip (SoC) integration. Building on the advanced, proven Stratix III architecture, Stratix IV FPGAs deliver a high-density, feature-rich and high-performance core fabric. Combined with flexible I/Os, high-bandwidth transceivers, and memory interfaces,

Atmel AT91RM9200 is ARM920T-based

It has 16K-byte instruction and 16K-byte data cache memories, 16K bytes SRAM, 128K bytes ROM, External Bus Interface incl. SDRAM, Burst Flash and Static Memory Controllers, USB Device and Host Interfaces, Ethernet 10/100 BaseT MAC, Power Management Controller and much more...

More Reading

Thursday, April 05, 2012

NuttX RTOS - Scalable and Simple OS

Usable in all but the tightest micro-controller environments, The focus is on the tiny-to-small, deeply embedded environment. Fully scalable from tiny (8-bit)to moderate embedded (32-bit). Fully pre-emptible, fixed priority and round-robin scheduling.

NuttX RTOS - Scalable and Simple OS

Towards high degree of standards compliance. The primary governing standards are POSIX and ANSI standards. Free Service - Port NuttX to run on your custom hardware.- Gregory Nutt.

Monday, April 02, 2012

Indesign - Electronic Product Development

Indesign, LLC. Indianapolis. - Engineering Services - Electronic Product Design Engineering.

Indesign - Electronic Product Development

Activity - Engineering Design of Electronic Products and Systems. Engineering Design Center. A Company formed in 1996 by a group of Bell Labs engineers. Specializations - Electrical, Software, Mechanical, Human Factors, Testing. Areas- Consumer, Medical, Computer, Military, Industrial, Automotive, etc.

Indesign: Electrical Design

Indesign: Electrical Design

Indesign has an extensive set of tools for electrical circuit design, simulation, and testing, including programmable logic design. The combination of talented engineers and state of the art equipment, allows Indesign to deliver a design optimized for functionality and manufacturability (DFX)

Indesign, LLC.
8225 E 56th St Indianapolis, IN 46216

Thursday, March 15, 2012

Cambridge Consultants - Design Technology

Cambridge Consultants - Design Technology
"Cambridge Consultants is a leading technology and innovation company, renowned for its ability to solve technical problems and provide creative, practical solutions to business issues."
Cambridge Consultants develops industry's smallest 2G and 3G femtocell base station

Sidewinder, the smallest commercially available 2G and 3G small-cell platform. Ideal for use in mobile phone communications and professional radio......
The novel radio design enables Sidewinder to operate at any carrier frequency from 375MHz to 4GHz and with a channel bandwidth from 200kHz to 28MHz. .....
Interface from CC - magazine containing a selection of articles, news stories and thought pieces on current and emerging technologies and markets.

Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Theta Electronic Engineering Services

Theta Electronic Engineering Services
 
"Theta Engineering was founded in 1993 to provide economical engineering services for companies needing to augment their technical resources. Theta Engineering provides a full range of electronic design and software/firmware development services aimed at getting your product to market."

Products developed by Theta Engineering

Robotic Cell Phone Programmer

Designed and programmed custom stepper motor driver boards for a robotic cellular phone programmer. This project involved inter-processor communication between 8 Microchip PIC-family microcontrollers supporting simultaneous motion of up to 7 axes.

Robotic Arm Test System Project
Designed and built 4 different automated test fixtures for Beckman Instruments (now Beckman Coulter). The unit pictured uses a combination of pneumatics and electronics for measuring the force and accuracy of a robotic arm which is itself a component in one of Beckman's medical lab instruments.

ShortLink - Design of Portable Wireless Systems

Product and System, design and development company. They offer design and engineering service in Silicon-ASIC design, Electronic product design and T&M products too.

ShortLink - Design of Portable Wireless Systems

They specialize in the field of low-power portable electronics and wireless systems.
ShortLink - Design of Portable Wireless Systems

ASIC design

Analog, digital ASIC design, Mixed Signal ASIC and RF-ASIC. The last two being areas of expertise. Ready-made IP blocks for analog, digital and RF applications are also available. They are a Fabless ASIC supplier.

Test and Measurement Service

Radio, EMC and environmental durability testing. Audio and acoustics, analysis and characterization of antennas. They offer radio testing up to 18 GHz.
Services Include
  • Radio and EMC testing
  • Assistance in CE marking
  • Antenna measurements
  • Environmental durability testing - temperature, salt, moisture and vibrations
  • Measurement and testing - audio and acoustics
Address - ShortLink AB, Stortorget 2, SE-661 42 Säffle, Sweden

Digital and Embedded Systems Design

An Embedded Microcontroller or DSP system is made of Chips, Circuits and Firmware. The digital voltage levels, speed, bus width, fan out, power consumption are some factors that a designer has to keep in mind. As portable and wireless gadgets are becoming more popular, RF, Ethernet and Energy Efficient Design aspects should be studied. Power electronics and Analog Circuits knowledge is used around the system, all this is integrated to make an instrument, equipment or gadget.

Digital and Embedded Systems Design
  • 80C51 ports can sink more current but source very less, hence use a 10k pull up at all the ports or outputs.
  • Firmware must be developed in increments, tested in increments, backed up in increments, must be modular (include) reuse.
  • Tristate output, High Impedance and Floating all mean the same when it comes to IC Inputs-Outputs. It means the pin is insulated from rest of circuit in the IC. That means it will not influence the node or bus it is connected to. A DMM terminals are floating means that the hand held plastic DMM has no electrical conductive link to earth or ground.
  • You can use hyper terminal to upload code to single board computers 80C51 like in BINARY or ASCII. Hyper Terminal, .
  • ASICs are for large volume production, or for products which have a long product life cycle.
  • Low volume production use FPGA or CPLD, or even flash based microcontrollers, so that all your inventory can be reused and recycled.
  • Cell phones or a LAN card ASIC is ideal as volumes are good in cell phones and for LAN cards the technology is matured. For either FPGA or ASIC's you get IP Modules or Code Libraries for many functions and applications.
  • Whatever the method keep design flexible and modular for reuse and to save cost. remember the hardware is difficult to alter, software can be altered even at customer site, flash has made this possible
  • In the future chips may be both analog and digital programmable with flash.
  • Some FPGA, CPLD, ASIC links, WinCUPL, Design and Reuse, fpga4fun.
  • Unused CMOS inputs should have a pull up or pull down resistor, it should not float, or it oscillates.
  • Have a decoupling capacitor 104 that is 0.1uF or 100nF across the supply of every IC very near the IC supply pins.
  • A watchdog timer should be used in every microcomputer circuit like 8051 so that the system resets on hanging.
  • The reset on a microcomputer should be applied till the supply to it is stabilized, this will enable a clean start.
  • Analog ground (opamps), digital ground (CMOS) and power ground (relays and LED) should be separate, (linked at root)
  • Pull up or pull down resistors in TTL can be 10K and in CMOS 100K and in battery operated systems 1M.
  • CMOS gates and Opamps have a output drive capability of ~ 10-20mA, so when you drive a load say an LED use a series resistor to limit the current to 5mA to 10mA.
  • When the number of digital chips you use in a project goes above 20 or 30 then it is better to use PLD or CPLD types from Altera, Xilinx or Lattice etc.
  • Try to use same family ICs in a circuit, like only LS or only HCT, if you mix up then you have to do a design review.
  • In a industrial environment many motors, DC drives and AC drives will be running, this will produce EMI, RFI, kickback spikes which cause microcontroller based equipment to hang. Use a watchdog timer for uC.
  • More EMI immunity by using opto couplers for all input and outputs, 4-20mA current signals for input and output and an isolated wide range SMPS.

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

ESI Group - Virtual Prototyping Solutions

Software Simulation Solution for prototype development and manufacturing process engineering with applied mechanics.

ESI Group - Virtual Prototyping Solutions

ESI Group - Paris, France - ESI is a world-leading supplier and pioneer of digital simulation software for prototyping and manufacturing processes that take into account material physics.

"Extensive suite of coherent, industry-oriented applications to realistically simulate a product's behavior during testing and real life use.." ESI's products represent a unique collaborative and open environment for End-to-End Virtual Prototyping.

ESI Group - Virtual Prototyping Solutions

Visual-Viewer from ESI is a complete, productive and innovative post processing environment for CAE applications.

Visual-Viewer allows easy and fast graphical interpretation with very useful animation control features such as simple section cut tool, video reading and aligning with simulations, synchronized simulation, and plot windows.

ESI Group
100-102 Avenue de Suffren 75015 Paris FRANCE

Thursday, February 09, 2012

Linden H McClure Embedded System Design

Linden H McClure Embedded System Design

Embedded System Design -

Embedded System Design is focused at the fundamentals of embedded system design, and is meant to give students experience in both hardware and firmware.

Wednesday, February 08, 2012

ThingM - Product and Interface Design

Design and manufacture ubiquitous computing products that combine user experience design expertise with a deep knowledge of cutting-edge technologies. Here, networked electronics meet user experience design in products for everyday problem solving...

ThingM - Product and Interface Design

>BlinkM MaxM


BlinkM MaxM, is BlinkMs bigger, crazy sibling. It's an intensely-bright smart LED that comes as a package of two components, a control module (MaxM Master) and a daughter board with three ultrabright LEDs (MaxM Blaster).

Tod E. Kurt co-founder ThingM

Electronics Design - AirBorn Electronics

They design and produce the electronic controllers inside new products. Electronic development, circuit design, PCB layout, prototyping, programming, these are the parts of Electronics Research and Development to bring a new idea or concept to life.

Electronics Design - AirBorn Electronics

See the guidelines for writing a project spec and further understanding the creative process.

AirBorn Electronics

Electronics Design - AirBorn Electronics

Coal face measurement product software being modified/tested on a mockup - The A-frame shaped unit is under test, the remainder is test equipment

Circuit Design Library - AirBorn Electronics

EMAC - Semicustom Embedded Engineering

Hardware design of digital, analog and microprocessor based circuitry. Circuits containing programmable logic or even ASIC's can be developed.

EMAC - Semicustom Embedded Engineering

Semi-Custom Development
There is no need to reinvent the wheel. Our off- the-shelf hardware has been fully field tested and development software has already been written.

Custom Product Design
Only your desired features are provided, costs are reduced. The required features, functions, and options can be placed on one printed circuit card, reducing costs.

Custom Design and Manufacture
Printed Circuit Boards, Hardware and Software, Control/Display panels. They supply and service, from concept to manufacturing.

EMAC - Semicustom Embedded Engineering

EMAC designs, manufactures, integrates and distributes, Single Board Computers (SBCs), System on Modules (SoMs) & Carrier Boards, Industrial Panel PCs (PPCs), Embedded Servers and Custom Solutions for the Embedded marketplace.

EMAC, Inc.
2390 EMAC Way, Carbondale, IL 62902, USA

Friday, January 27, 2012

FDI Engineering Design Services

FDI makes Development Kits, Touch Screen Kits, SBC and many other Embedded System Tools. They also offer Engineering and Manufacturing services.

FDI Engineering Design Services

FDI also offers in-house production for quick turn prototypes and low volumes. A Touch Screen Kit from FDI is an easy to implement Graphical User Interface (GUI) or Human Machine Interface (HMI) in any small instrument or equipment.

3.5 QVGA Touch Screen LCD Kit for RX6N

3.5" QVGA Touch Screen LCD Kit for RX6N

Features Include
  • Tianma 3.5" TFT QVGA LCD Panel with integrated Touch Screen
  • Renesas CPU running at 96MHz (with 512KB internal Flash)
  • 2MB of SDRAM and 2GB microSD Memory Card
  • USB Device Mini-B for power and PC communications
Future Designs, Inc.
996 A Cleaner Way SW Huntsville, AL 35805 

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

Touch Screen Interface - Eurek

Eurek elettronica is a production company specialising in the building or assembly of circuit boards in large or smaller batches. They are also an Engineering Service with a fully equipped in-house lab for prototyping, testing and analysis. They also have products for Embedded System Development.

Touch Screen Interface - Eurek

EK 280 EK280 is a Linux touch screen designed and optimized for being used on machines and industrial applications. It is based on i.MX27L 400 MHz and Linux 2.6 (Qt 4.6, SDL, FLTK/Nano-x, SQLite) Freescale processor. Thanks to a resolution of 800×480 pixels and a 7’’screen is suitable to create graphical user interfaces (GUI) for all kinds of sophisticated automation.

Touch Screen Interface - Eurek

EK280 is a compact and thin module, provided with a plastic base and spacers to be easily mounted behind a panel using only 4 screws. The touch-screen is resistive, and is operable even with gloves; it can be superimposed by an adhesive film for a perfect aesthetic finish and to make the panel washable.

Eurek Elettronica
via Celletta 8/B 40026 Imola (BO) Italy.

Updated - Jan 2014

Monday, January 23, 2012

Scilab Numerical Computation – Scilab Consortium

A Cross-platform and free software for numerical computation. Useful for industrial, scientific and technical computing. A versatile mathematical tool for Engineering.

Scilab Numerical Computation - Scilab Consortium

Scilab includes hundreds of mathematical functions. It has a high level programming language allowing access to advanced data structures, 2-D and 3-D graphical functions.

More Features

  • Graphs and Networks
  • Interface with Fortran, C, C++, Java
  • LabVIEW to Scilab Gateway
  • Graphics export in many formats
  • LaTeX / MathML annotations

Xcos is a graphical editor to design hybrid dynamical systems models. Models can be designed, loaded, saved, compiled and simulated.